The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) was established by the United Nations in response to mass atrocities and war crimes against various ethnic groups taking place in Croatia, Bosnia, Kosovo, Serbia and Macedonia. Its indictments address crimes committed from 1991 to 2001. It sits in the Hague, in the Netherlands.
In 2002 former Serbian President Slobodan Milošević was charged by the ICTY with committing Crimes Against Humanity and genocide. He died of a heart attack in custody before a verdict could be reached.
In July 2008 former Bosnian Serb President Radovan Karadžić was arrested for command responsibility and the order of the Srebrenica Massacre. He is charged with the murder of at least 7,000 male Bosnian Muslims in Srebrenica. He remains in the custody of the ICTY and the prosecution began presenting evidence on 13 April 2010. The trial is scheduled to finish in 2014.
On 26 May 2011, Ratko Mladić was arrested. He is accused of participating in a joint criminal enterprise to permanently remove Bosnian Muslims and Bosnian Croats from the parts of Bosnia claimed as Bosnian Serb territory; and of participating in a joint criminal enterprise to eliminate the Bosnian Muslims in Srebrenica by killing the men and boys of Srebrenica and forcibly removing the women, young children and some elderly men. The trial began in May 2012 and is scheduled to finish in 2016.
In September 2009 Bosnian Serb wartime leader, Momcilo Krajisnik began a 20 year sentence in the UK for deportation, forcible transfer and persecution during the conflict in Bosnia.
In December 2012 Zdravko Tolimir, an assistant commander in the Bosnian Serb Army, was found guilty of conspiracy to commit genocide against Muslims in both Srebrenica and Žepa.
The ICTY continues to excite fierce controversy in the states of the former Yugoslavia. Some Serbs complain that Serbs have been disproportionately targeted, whereas some non-Serbs complain that the prosecutors have attempted to ‘equalise’ guilt by indicting Croats, Bosniaks and Kosovars, when the Bosnian Serbs were responsible for the vast majority of atrocities.